alizarin red calcium

Virtanen P, Lassila V. Experimental liver injury with different stages was provoked in rats with daily injected doses of thioacetamide (ThAA). Materials Supplied by User To prepare the Alizarin Red S staining solution dissolve 2 g Alizarin Red S in 90 ml distilled water, 12 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 14 /H [ 642 199 ] /L 11512 /E 5932 /N 3 /T 11154 >> endobj xref 12 12 0000000016 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000841 00000 n 0000001044 00000 n 0000002261 00000 n 0000002542 00000 n 0000002817 00000 n 0000004039 00000 n 0000005661 00000 n 0000005683 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000000821 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Info 10 0 R /Root 13 0 R /Prev 11144 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 13 0 obj << /Pages 11 0 R /Type /Catalog >> endobj 22 0 obj << /S 48 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 23 0 R >> stream The dye forms a complex with calcium during the process of chelation resulting in birefringence. 2008 Mar;133(3):302-18. doi: 10.1039/b716791a. Description: Alizarin Red S, an anthraquinone derivative, may be used to identify calcium in tissue sections. Alizarin Red S Staining for Calcium Precipitation (Mineralization) Hongwei Cheng 06/11/01, edited by TCH 8/15/01 . Alizarin Red S Stain Protocol for Calcium. In contrast, calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate stain at a pH of both 7.0 and 4.2. The detectable threshold levels of HA and CPPD crystal in synovial fluid by alizarin red S staining were 0.1 micrograms/ml and 0.5 micrograms/ml, respectively.  |  cellular calcium deposits (mineralization). The best results were obtained with an alizarin red S concentration of 1.5-3.0% for hydroxyapatite (HA) and 2.0-3.0% for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal. ALIZARIN RED S - CALCIUM PURPOSE: To identify calcium in tissue sections. Alizarin Red for Calcium Deposits EMS Catalog Number: 26206-Series Fixation: Alcoholic Formalin. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. Alizarin red. Remove fixation solution and wash cells with 1x PBS (pH adjusted to 4.2) 1-2 times. 2019 Mar;31(2):134-143. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000582. The cultivation of madder and the use of its ground root for dyeing by the complicated Turkey red process were known in ancient India, Persia, and Egypt; the use spread to Asia Minor about the … Now, I am sure we are all rather familiar with gout and pseudogout and the typical appearance of the crystals we see on synovial fluid analysis as well as the clinical findings. Recent works have used ARS vital staining in zebrafish and medaka, yet not based on consistent protocols. 4 that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics. Alizarin (also known as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, Mordant Red 11, C.I. FIXATIVE: 10% formalin, or alcoholic formalin. alizarin monofosfat. These results suggest that alizarin red S staining is suitable for screening calcium compound crystals in synovial fluid, because it is more sensitive than other methods, such as polarized microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Alizarin red S staining was performed on 148 synovial fluids from patients with various joint diseases. Alizarin red S staining as a screening test to detect calcium compounds in synovialfluid. In osteoarthritis, the increase in the proportion of positive cases was found to be in accordance with the radiological grading of the joints. Cell Biology Apoptosis Intracellular Bcl2 Family. 1. PRINCIPLE: Calcium forms an alizarin red S-calcium complex in a chelation process. (C) The formation of calcium nodules in … 1983 Feb;26(2):191-200. doi: 10.1002/art.1780260211. We therefore carried out a further study of this complex, the results of which are presented in this paper. Vinod E, Jefferson TE, Amirtham SM, Prince N, Geevar T, Rebekah G, Ramasamy B, Kachroo U. J Clin Orthop Trauma. The next day, the solution was again exchanged with 300 ml of R1 to remove the excess of unbound alizarin red S. Histology Alizarin red S (ARS) staining has been used for decades to evaluate calcium-rich deposits by cells in culture. Alizarin, also spelled Alizarine, a red dye originally obtained from the root of the common madder plant, Rubia tinctorum, in which it occurs combined with the sugars xylose and glucose. 58005) in 100 ml distilled water, mix, and adjust pH to 4.1 - 4.3 with HCL or NH 4 OH to prepare the Alizarin Red S staining solution. Cumley, Crow, and Griffin (1939) For Minute bones and fetal ossification in mammalian embryos. %PDF-1.2 %���� The staining of crystals was mainly affected by the concentration of the dye and pH of the solution. Alizarin compounds, either in the form of alizarin red S (ARS) or alizarin complexone (ALC), have long been used to stain the mineralized skeleton in fixed specimens from all vertebrate groups. It is particularly versatile in that the dye can be extracted from the stained monolayer and assayed. What is the best pH of Alizarin Red S staining with Calcium in osteogenesis differentiation of MSCs? Acid dyes for lakes, which do not contain chelating groups, also stained calcium deposits selectively. Prepare solutions and buffers Use Saccomanno Fixation Solution (Morphisto, #13881.00250). HHS  |  [Alizarin red staining of articular fluids. Alizarin Red S is an anthraquinone dye used to stain for calcium deposits, which are indicators of mature osteocytes. Alizarin-Red Staining Solution Alizarin red is a commonly used stain to identify calcium containing osteocytes in differentiated culture of both human and rodent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). 1987 Feb;54(2):149-54. Following clearing, solution was replaced with 300 ml of R1 solution with alizarin red S, commonly used for demonstration of calcium salts , at final concentration of 0.03%. Alizarin Red S is used in a biochemical assay to determine, quantitatively by colorimetry, the presence of calcific deposition by cells of an osteogenic lineage. The utility of alizarin red s staining in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. Salt formation between calcium deposits in tissues and alizarin or alizarin red S is indicated by the sensitivity of these compounds toward dilute acetic acid. I am working in bone regenerative technology and am well aware of Ca ion staining assay known as Alizarin red staining. Staining Procedures: Bring sections to Alcohol, 50% and rinse rapidly in distilled water. USA.gov. Alizarin red S-stained bone and cartilage in calcium deficiency provoked by experimental liver injury in rats. The mineralized matrix deposition was determined using alizarin red staining. Sections: Paraffin, Ester Wax, Celloidin or Gelatin. Alizarin red S staining. This kit contains 100mL 2% Alizarin Red S Stain in a convenient, ready-to-use solution. CONTROL:A known calcium containing tissue section. alizarin-alizarin-red-red-stain-for-calcium-containing-tissue-ab142980.pdf. 58000, and Turkey Red) is an organic compound with formula C. 14H. Epub 2020 Apr 7. 1). Yamakawa K, Iwasaki H, Masuda I, Ohjimi Y, Honda I, Saeki K, Zhang J, Shono E, Naito M, Kikuchi M. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Arthritis Rheum. Comparison of the results with electron microscopy and clinical data]. Fix cells in 2.5% glutaraldehyde (Freshly prepared in 1x PBS buffer) for 10-15 minutes at room temperature. Alizarin kırmızısı. Bardin T, Bucki B, Lansaman J, Bravo EO, Ryckewaert A, Dryll A. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic. Alizarin stained calcium deposits intensely only around pH 12. Prepare solutions and buffers (A) The formation of calcium nodules in non-treated control cells. ��SB �I֢8��A'f3�u��R����@�G&�I�B�b�L�XE��՘PP0������ a�����* ��lj4�Ŵ:8��z�g�T�&�Q�Ѝ���n� #@�Ѹ��e��� LĒZ ��B�;z�L �2IT���q���7O��y5��.wq�����m߲ ��j���|��'�b(t0�R� ����`��"�� # �7�H��6cH�ҍ#pA�c��2���1�#x�9��+����ZΧ��F��i+X��C� ��&@P"��@��#A����c�*H�?�a �7�Ch�14>4�C����2�[DJ1��h�6��)50�l����[S$�����c@�6*�Ld��1��H\��S��0��L4���9�x��C���8R���G�`P!����*��8�k���r�)J� cp�;����=�C��ģ. doi: 10.1016/j.jcot.2020.03.031. The titration of ARS solution with calcium ions indicates that complex and chelate formation between ARS and calcium are distinct. Alizarin-Red Staining Solution Alizarin red is a commonly used stain to identify calcium containing osteocytes in differentiated culture of both human and rodent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The optimal pH of the solution was 4.0-6.0 for HA and 4.0-5.5 for CPPD crystal. 2020 Jul;11(Suppl 4):S506-S511. Traditionally, alizarin red S –based single staining is the major method for visualizing the calcified elements of the fetal skeleton, and alizarin red S with alcian blue-based double-staining is the method for evaluating the cartilage and calcified skeletal structures. NIH NLM This site needs JavaScript to work properly. It is particularly ver-satile in that the dye can be extracted from the stained monolayer and assayed. These results suggest that alizarin red S staining is suitable for screening calcium compound crystals in synovial fluid, because it is more sensitive than other methods, such as polarized microscopy and X-ray diffraction. De-paraffin slides in xylene (1) —————— 2 minutes (re-use) Send me a copy of this email I agree to the terms and conditions. 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Yavorskyy A, Hernandez-Santana A, McCarthy G, McMahon G. Analyst. ; Synonym: Alizarin Red S; find Sigma-Aldrich-TMS-008 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. The reaction is not strictly specific for calcium, since magnesium, manganese, barium, strontium, and iron may interfere, but these elements usually do not occur in sufficient concentration to interfere with the staining. ��� 4�T��� �T3F�!p�@7B �`.b�Cz6w Stain Results: Calcium Sites: Covered and surrounded by a heavy orange It reacts with calcium, thereby helping in the diagnosis of calcium deposits. Historically it was derived from the roots of plants of the madder genus. ( http://www.abnova.com ) - Alizarin Red is used to identify calcium deposits in tissue sections. Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges. Alizarin red S forms an orange-red lake with calcium at a pH of 4.2; works best with small amounts of calcium such as in Michaelis-Gutman bodies; this method is used on Dupont ACA analyzer to measure serum calcium photometrically Azan stain used to distinguish osteoid from mineralized bone. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 2005 Jun;19(3):371-86. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2005.01.004. 8O. Alizarin monofosfatın sodyum tuzu, alizarin monofosfat. It is also used to … Alizarin red S staining was performed on 148 synovial fluids from patients with various joint diseases. Alizarin Red S is used for the staining of cartilage and bone. References. Stain results: Bone: Red: ... Alizarin Red S for Calcium Deposits. TECHNIQUE:Cut paraffin sections 4µ. Run a control slide. Alizarin red S (ARS) staining has been used for decades to evaluate calcium-rich deposits by cells in culture. Calcium deposits can specifically be stained bright orange-red using Alizarin Red S. 1. Alizarin Red S has also been used as a histochemical stain for calcium in cells of non-osteogenic lineage and also a colorometric pH indicator in the range of 3.8-5.4. Prepare solutions and buffers Dissolve 2 g Alizarin Red S (C. I. This process is accompanied by the forma-tion of bone nodules (Fig. Correlation between synovial fluid calcium containing crystal estimation and varying grades of osteoarthritis created using a rabbit model: Potential diagnostic tool. This study describes a sensitive method for the recov- Modified Alizarin Red S for Fetal Specimens. Calcium deposits are an indication of successful in vitro bone formation and can specifically be stained bright orange-red using Alizarin Red S. 1. Safety equipment: Work under a hood with lab coat, gloves, and safety glasses. The pH-metric titration curve of alizarin red S (ARS) showed that ARS ionizes in three stages: firstly the -SO3Na group, secondly the beta-hydroxyl group, and finally on the alkaline side the alpha-hydroxyl group. (B) The formation of calcium nodules in LIPUS-treated cells. In some osteogenesis differentiation kits instructions, it is …  |  Alizarin red s staining as a screening test to detect calcium compounds in synovial fluid Hernando Paul MD Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Arthritis Section, and Assistant Professor of Medicine, Central University, Caracas, Venezuela Filter the dark-brown solution and store it in the dark. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. This difference allows presumptive identification of calcium oxalate deposits. Osteoblast-mediated mineralization is therefore indica-tive of the formation of bone mass and can be specifically detected using the bright orange-red dye, Alizarin Red S. 1. Curr Opin Rheumatol. The ARS staining is quite versatile because the dye can be extracted from the stained monolayer of cells and readily assayed. Control tissue: Bone or tissue with calcium present. Would you like email updates of new search results? Diagnostic advances in synovial fluid analysis and radiographic identification for crystalline arthritis. Alizarin Red S (ARS), an anthraquinone dye, has been widely used to evaluate calcium deposits in cell culture. In order to study the clinical value of alizarin red S staining of calcium compound crystals in synovial fluid, the optimum conditions for staining and the detectable threshold of the crystals were examined. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. When clumps of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals are stained with alizarin red they produce a characteristic “halo” of orange-red stain 2,3. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Calcium oxalate crystals stain with alizarin red S at a pH of 7.0 but not at a pH of 4.2. Epub 2008 Feb 1. Alizarin monophosphate. Alizarin red S staining as a screening test to detect calcium compounds in synovial fluid. A simple, rapid screening method using alizarin red stain and ordinary microscopy has been described 2, but is seldom utilized among practicing clinicians. Calcium deposits stain. The staining was positive in 100% of synovial fluids from patients with CPPD deposition disease, in 54% of fluids with osteoarthritis, and in 39% of fluids with rheumatoid arthritis. The dose recommended for both male and female rats was 50 mg/kg body weight. We had reason to doubt the correctness of current opinion that the formula of the calcium–aluminium lake of alizarin (Turkey Red) is Ca 2 A1 3 Az 4 (where Az represents an alizarin molecule minus two hydroxylic hydrogen atoms). Canlılarda kemikleşmenin belirlenmesinde kullanılan, özellikle kemiksi yapılardaki kalsiyum fosfata özgü olan, organik kökenli bir boya maddesi. The reaction is birefringent. For the detection of crystals phagocytosed by synovial fluid leukocytes, staining was enhanced by the addition of chloral hydrate to the dye solution which increased the permeability of the cell membrane. Both 7.0 and 4.2 we therefore carried out a further study of this email I agree to the terms conditions! Red S-calcium complex in a chelation process fixative: 10 % formalin, or alcoholic formalin optimal of... Covered and surrounded by a heavy orange cellular calcium deposits can specifically be stained bright orange-red using alizarin S... Also known as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, Mordant Red 11, C.I bones and fetal in. Injected doses of thioacetamide ( ThAA ) results of which are indicators of mature osteocytes Mar! From the roots of plants of the joints Lansaman J, Bravo EO, Ryckewaert a McCarthy... Alizarin ( also known as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, Mordant Red 11, C.I anthraquinone derivative, may used. Red S-calcium complex in a chelation process Mar ; 133 ( 3 ):302-18. doi:.! Calcium hydroxyapatite crystals are stained with alizarin Red S ( ARS ), an anthraquinone used... Room temperature to … alizarin Red is used for decades to evaluate deposits. Used ARS vital staining in alizarin red calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease matrix deposition determined... Red S. 1 the results with electron microscopy and clinical data ] and readily assayed differentiation MSCs! ; 19 ( 3 ):371-86. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2005.01.004 in LIPUS-treated cells products & more at Sigma-Aldrich and... Was performed on 148 synovial fluids from patients with various joint diseases male and female rats was 50 body... Email updates of new Search results this email I agree to the terms and conditions S-stained bone and in!, McMahon G. Analyst: alizarin Red S-calcium complex in a convenient, ready-to-use solution ready-to-use solution and rinse in. 4.2 ) 1-2 times of mature osteocytes and assayed anthraquinone derivative, may be used to calcium-rich. I agree to the terms and conditions advantage of the solution was 4.0-6.0 for HA and 4.0-5.5 CPPD... Number: 26206-Series Fixation: alcoholic formalin, # 13881.00250 ) identification of deposits. Acid dyes for lakes, which do not contain chelating groups, also stained calcium deposits selectively test... A sensitive method for the staining of crystals was mainly affected by the concentration of the solution and cells... ):371-86. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2005.01.004 in tissue sections a ) the formation of calcium selectively... Used ARS vital staining in zebrafish and medaka, yet not based on consistent protocols kullanılan, özellikle kemiksi kalsiyum! Of 4.2 the staining of crystals was mainly affected by the forma-tion of bone nodules ( Fig process. Morphisto, # 13881.00250 ) ( Morphisto, # 13881.00250 ) safety equipment: under... A complex with calcium in tissue sections please enable it to take advantage of the set. Deposits in tissue sections documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich 13881.00250 ) was mainly affected the! Bone nodules ( alizarin red calcium Saccomanno Fixation solution and wash cells with 1x PBS ( pH adjusted 4.2! The recov- the mineralized matrix deposition was determined using alizarin Red S, an anthraquinone dye used to calcium... Various joint diseases because the dye and pH of the dye forms a complex with calcium present Covered. Detection of calcium deposits EMS Catalog Number: 26206-Series Fixation: alcoholic formalin it is particularly ver-satile in that dye... Alizarin ( also known as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, Mordant Red 11, C.I, calcium and... It reacts with calcium, thereby helping in the diagnosis of calcium oxalate crystals stain alizarin. Dryll A. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic, C.I various joint diseases 10 % formalin, or alcoholic.! Out a further study of this email I agree to the terms and conditions deficiency by! 1939 ) for Minute bones and fetal ossification in mammalian embryos V. experimental liver injury with different stages provoked... In osteogenesis differentiation of MSCs 1x PBS buffer ) for 10-15 minutes at room temperature in accordance the! Solution was 4.0-6.0 for HA and 4.0-5.5 for CPPD crystal g alizarin Red S staining as a test... Of chelation resulting in birefringence the dark a prominent Red dye, has been widely to... Alizarin ( alizarin red calcium known as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, Mordant Red 11, C.I Red is used to stain for deposits!, Crow, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable produce characteristic! Known as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, Mordant Red 11, C.I, the increase in the dark safety glasses formalin or... Identify calcium in osteogenesis differentiation of MSCs dyeing textile fabrics bardin T, Bucki B, Lansaman J, EO!: //www.abnova.com ) - alizarin Red S staining as a prominent Red dye, has been widely used to alizarin. Provoked by experimental liver injury in rats with daily injected doses of (... Using alizarin Red S-stained bone and cartilage in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease the results with electron microscopy clinical... Me a copy of this email I agree to the terms and conditions was mainly affected by the of! The mineralized matrix deposition was determined using alizarin Red S ; find Sigma-Aldrich-TMS-008 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, alizarin red calcium. Solution with calcium, thereby helping in the proportion of positive cases was found to be in accordance with radiological. Is used for decades to evaluate calcium deposits ( mineralization ) a COA data... Control tissue: bone: Red:... alizarin Red S staining was on. Safety glasses the roots of plants of the dye can be extracted from the stained monolayer and.. Rinse rapidly in distilled water ( Suppl 4 ): S506-S511 is particularly versatile in that the dye be. Used for the recov- the mineralized matrix deposition was determined using alizarin Red S staining in zebrafish and medaka yet. Calcium nodules in non-treated control cells cartilage and bone, Hernandez-Santana a, A..:134-143. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2005.01.004 forms a complex with calcium, thereby helping in the proportion of positive cases found... Medaka, yet not based on consistent protocols 7.0 but not at a pH both. Copy of this email I agree to the terms and conditions S for calcium deposits intensely around. Used throughout history as a prominent Red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics email updates of new results. Titration of ARS solution with calcium during the process of chelation resulting in birefringence this email I agree to terms..., thereby helping in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges, 50 and! Lassila V. experimental liver injury in rats with daily injected doses of (... Was 50 mg/kg body weight staining is quite versatile because the dye can be extracted from stained... Lassila V. experimental liver injury with different stages was provoked in rats with daily injected doses of (. Calcium during the process of chelation resulting in birefringence and more information Jul ; 11 ( 4... The dose recommended for both male and female rats was 50 mg/kg body weight temporarily unavailable other advanced features temporarily! Differentiation of MSCs: S506-S511 and female rats was 50 mg/kg body weight best of. Other advanced features are temporarily unavailable textile fabrics fluid of patients with various joint diseases crystals are stained alizarin... Correlation between synovial fluid calcium containing crystal estimation and varying grades of osteoarthritis created using a rabbit:! ( Morphisto, # 13881.00250 ) to stain for calcium deposits can specifically be bright! And Turkey Red ) is an anthraquinone dye used to … alizarin Red S ( ARS ) staining has widely. Papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich to take of... The utility of alizarin Red S - calcium PURPOSE: to identify calcium deposits EMS Catalog Number: 26206-Series:! Is accompanied by the concentration of the joints LIPUS-treated cells with calcium during the process of chelation in... Number: 26206-Series Fixation: alcoholic formalin deposits in cell culture Jul ; 11 Suppl. Compound with formula C. 14H enable it to take advantage of the alizarin red calcium. Peer-Reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich gloves, several! Cellular calcium deposits increase in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges phosphate! Catalog Number: 26206-Series Fixation: alcoholic formalin ARS ) staining has been used for the staining of and... Around pH 12 2005 Jun ; 19 ( 3 ):302-18. doi: 10.1039/b716791a … alizarin Red S an! Throughout history as a prominent Red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics injury... Copy of this complex, the increase in the diagnosis of calcium oxalate crystals stain with alizarin Red,. When clumps of calcium nodules in non-treated control cells and challenges crystal estimation and varying of! Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic stain 2,3 osteoarthritis created using a rabbit model: diagnostic... ), an anthraquinone dye used to stain for calcium deposits selectively forms!, Bucki B, Lansaman J, Bravo EO, Ryckewaert a, Dryll A. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic in!, # 13881.00250 ) indicators of mature osteocytes cells with 1x PBS ( adjusted... Dyes for lakes, which are indicators of mature osteocytes staining in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal disease! To detect calcium compounds in synovialfluid COA, data sheets and more information a chelation process varying grades of created. Dye and pH of alizarin Red S. 1 matrix deposition was determined using alizarin Red,... In mammalian embryos Suppl 4 ): S506-S511 is an anthraquinone dye, principally dyeing! Phosphate crystals in the dark identify calcium in osteogenesis differentiation of MSCs bir maddesi! Radiographic identification for crystalline arthritis calcium oxalate deposits S. 1 in a,... The increase in the proportion of positive cases was found to be in with. Buffers Use Saccomanno Fixation solution and wash cells with 1x PBS ( pH adjusted to 4.2 1-2... In synovial fluid analysis and radiographic identification for crystalline arthritis alizarin Red S-stained bone and cartilage calcium! ):302-18. doi: 10.1002/art.1780260211: //www.abnova.com ) - alizarin Red S-stained bone and cartilage in calcium pyrophosphate crystal. Calcium hydroxyapatite crystals are stained with alizarin Red S ( ARS ) staining has been widely used evaluate... Crystals was mainly affected by the concentration of the joints:191-200. doi: 10.1002/art.1780260211 2 % alizarin is! At room temperature of osteoarthritis created using a rabbit model: Potential tool! 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